Volley架构解析

1. 总体设计图

上图是 Volley 的总体设计图,主要是通过两种Diapatch Thread不断从RequestQueue中取出请求,根据是否已缓存调用Cache或Network这两类数据获取接口之一,从内存缓存或是服务器取得请求的数据,然后交由ResponseDelivery去做结果分发及回调处理。

2. Volley中的概念

简单介绍一些概念,在详细设计中会仔细介绍。
Volley 的调用比较简单,通过 newRequestQueue(…) 函数新建并启动一个请求队列RequestQueue后,只需要往这个RequestQueue不断 add Request 即可。
Volley:Volley 对外暴露的 API,通过 newRequestQueue(…) 函数新建并启动一个请求队列RequestQueue。
Request:表示一个请求的抽象类。StringRequest、JsonRequest、ImageRequest都是它的子类,表示某种类型的请求。
RequestQueue:表示请求队列,里面包含一个CacheDispatcher(用于处理走缓存请求的调度线程)、NetworkDispatcher数组(用于处理走网络请求的调度线程),一个ResponseDelivery(返回结果分发接口),通过 start() 函数启动时会启动CacheDispatcher和NetworkDispatchers。
CacheDispatcher:一个线程,用于调度处理走缓存的请求。启动后会不断从缓存请求队列中取请求处理,队列为空则等待,请求处理结束则将结果传递给ResponseDelivery去执行后续处理。当结果未缓存过、缓存失效或缓存需要刷新的情况下,该请求都需要重新进入NetworkDispatcher去调度处理。
NetworkDispatcher:一个线程,用于调度处理走网络的请求。启动后会不断从网络请求队列中取请求处理,队列为空则等待,请求处理结束则将结果传递给ResponseDelivery去执行后续处理,并判断结果是否要进行缓存。
ResponseDelivery:返回结果分发接口,目前只有基于ExecutorDelivery的在入参 handler 对应线程内进行分发。
HttpStack:处理 Http 请求,返回请求结果。目前 Volley 中有基于 HttpURLConnection 的HurlStack和 基于 Apache HttpClient 的HttpClientStack。
Network:调用HttpStack处理请求,并将结果转换为可被ResponseDelivery处理的NetworkResponse。
Cache:缓存请求结果,Volley 默认使用的是基于 sdcard 的DiskBasedCache。NetworkDispatcher得到请求结果后判断是否需要存储在 Cache,CacheDispatcher会从 Cache 中取缓存结果。

3. 流程图

Volley 请求流程图

其中蓝色部分代表主线程,绿色部分代表缓存线程,橙色部分代表网络线程。我们在主线程中调用RequestQueue的add()方法来添加一条网络请求,这条请求会先被加入到缓存队列当中,如果发现可以找到相应的缓存结果就直接读取缓存并解析,然后回调给主线程。如果在缓存中没有找到结果,则将这条请求加入到网络请求队列中,然后处理发送HTTP请求,解析响应结果,写入缓存,并回调主线程。

4. 源码分析

使用Volley的第一步,首先要调用Volley.newRequestQueue(context)方法来获取一个RequestQueue对象,那么我们自然要从这个方法开始看起了,代码如下所示:

public static RequestQueue newRequestQueue(Context context) {
return newRequestQueue(context, null);
}
public static RequestQueue newRequestQueue(Context context, HttpStack stack) {  
    File cacheDir = new File(context.getCacheDir(), DEFAULT_CACHE_DIR);  
    String userAgent = "volley/0";  
    try {  
        String packageName = context.getPackageName();  
        PackageInfo info = context.getPackageManager().getPackageInfo(packageName, 0);  
        userAgent = packageName + "/" + info.versionCode;  
    } catch (NameNotFoundException e) {  
    }  
    //如果stack是等于null的,则去创建一个HttpStack对象,手机系统版本号是大于9的,则创建一个HurlStack的实例,否则就创建一个HttpClientStack的实例,HurlStack的内部就是使用HttpURLConnection进行网络通讯的,而HttpClientStack的内部则是使用HttpClient进行网络通讯的
    if (stack == null) {  
        if (Build.VERSION.SDK_INT >= 9) {  
            stack = new HurlStack();  
        } else {  
            stack = new HttpClientStack(AndroidHttpClient.newInstance(userAgent));  
        }  
    } 
    //创建了一个Network对象,它是用于根据传入的HttpStack对象来处理网络请求的
    Network network = new BasicNetwork(stack);  
    RequestQueue queue = new RequestQueue(new DiskBasedCache(cacheDir), network);  
    queue.start();  
    return queue;  
}  

最终会走到RequestQueue的start()方法,然后将RequestQueue返回。去看看RequestQueue的start()方法内部到底执行了什么?

public void start() {  
    stop();  // Make sure any currently running dispatchers are stopped.  
    //先是创建了一个CacheDispatcher的实例,然后调用了它的start()方法
    mCacheDispatcher = new CacheDispatcher(mCacheQueue, mNetworkQueue, mCache, mDelivery);  
    mCacheDispatcher.start();  
    //for循环创建NetworkDispatcher的实例,并分别调用它们的start()方法 
    for (int i = 0; i < mDispatchers.length; i++) {  
        NetworkDispatcher networkDispatcher = new NetworkDispatcher(mNetworkQueue, mNetwork, mCache, mDelivery);  
        mDispatchers[i] = networkDispatcher;  
        networkDispatcher.start();  
    }  
}  

CacheDispatcher和NetworkDispatcher都是继承自Thread的,而默认情况下for循环会执行四次,也就是说当调用了Volley.newRequestQueue(context)之后,就会有五个线程一直在后台运行,不断等待网络请求的到来,其中CacheDispatcher是缓存线程,NetworkDispatcher是网络请求线程。
得到了RequestQueue之后,我们只需要构建出相应的Request,然后调用RequestQueue的add()方法将Request传入就可以完成网络请求操作了,来看看add()方法吧:

public  Request add(Request request) {  
    // Tag the request as belonging to this queue and add it to the set of current requests.  
    request.setRequestQueue(this);  
    synchronized (mCurrentRequests) {  
        mCurrentRequests.add(request);  
    }  
    // Process requests in the order they are added.  
    request.setSequence(getSequenceNumber());  
    request.addMarker("add-to-queue");  
    //判断当前的请求是否可以缓存,如果不能缓存则直接将这条请求加入网络请求队列
    if (!request.shouldCache()) {  
        mNetworkQueue.add(request);  
        return request;  
    }  
    // Insert request into stage if there's already a request with the same cache key in flight.  
    synchronized (mWaitingRequests) {  
        String cacheKey = request.getCacheKey();  
        if (mWaitingRequests.containsKey(cacheKey)) {  
            // There is already a request in flight. Queue up.  
            Queue<Request<?>> stagedRequests = mWaitingRequests.get(cacheKey);  
            if (stagedRequests == null) {  
                stagedRequests = new LinkedList<Request<?>>();  
            }  
            stagedRequests.add(request);  
            mWaitingRequests.put(cacheKey, stagedRequests);  
            if (VolleyLog.DEBUG) {  
                VolleyLog.v("Request for cacheKey=%s is in flight, putting on hold.", cacheKey);  
            }  
        } else {  
            //当前的请求可以缓存的话则将这条请求加入缓存队列
            mWaitingRequests.put(cacheKey, null);  
            mCacheQueue.add(request);  
        }  
        return request;  
    }  
} 

在默认情况下,每条请求都是可以缓存的,当然我们也可以调用Request的setShouldCache(false)方法来改变这一默认行为。既然默认每条请求都是可以缓存的,自然就被添加到了缓存队列中,于是一直在后台等待的缓存线程就要开始运行起来了,我们看下CacheDispatcher中的run()方法

public class CacheDispatcher extends Thread {  

    ……  

    @Override  
    public void run() {  
        if (DEBUG) VolleyLog.v("start new dispatcher");  
        Process.setThreadPriority(Process.THREAD_PRIORITY_BACKGROUND);  
        // Make a blocking call to initialize the cache.  
        mCache.initialize();  
        while (true) {  
            try {  
                // Get a request from the cache triage queue, blocking until  
                // at least one is available.  
                final Request<?> request = mCacheQueue.take();  
                request.addMarker("cache-queue-take");  
                // If the request has been canceled, don't bother dispatching it.  
                if (request.isCanceled()) {  
                    request.finish("cache-discard-canceled");  
                    continue;  
                }  
                //尝试从缓存当中取出响应结果 
                Cache.Entry entry = mCache.get(request.getCacheKey());  
                if (entry == null) {  
                    request.addMarker("cache-miss");  
                   // 如何为空的话则把这条请求加入到网络请求队列中
                    mNetworkQueue.put(request);  
                    continue;  
                }  
                // 如果不为空的话再判断该缓存是否已过期,如果已经过期了则同样把这条请求加入到网络请求队列中
                if (entry.isExpired()) {  
                    request.addMarker("cache-hit-expired");  
                    request.setCacheEntry(entry);  
                    mNetworkQueue.put(request);  
                    continue;  
                }  
                //没有过期就认为不需要重发网络请求,直接使用缓存中的数据即可  
                request.addMarker("cache-hit"); 
                //对数据进行解析 
                Response<?> response = request.parseNetworkResponse(  
                        new NetworkResponse(entry.data, entry.responseHeaders));  
                request.addMarker("cache-hit-parsed");  
                if (!entry.refreshNeeded()) {  
                    // Completely unexpired cache hit. Just deliver the response.  
                    mDelivery.postResponse(request, response);  
                } else {  
                    // Soft-expired cache hit. We can deliver the cached response,  
                    // but we need to also send the request to the network for  
                    // refreshing.  
                    request.addMarker("cache-hit-refresh-needed");  
                    request.setCacheEntry(entry);  
                    // Mark the response as intermediate.  
                    response.intermediate = true;  
                    // Post the intermediate response back to the user and have  
                    // the delivery then forward the request along to the network.  
                    mDelivery.postResponse(request, response, new Runnable() {  
                        @Override  
                        public void run() {  
                            try {  
                                mNetworkQueue.put(request);  
                            } catch (InterruptedException e) {  
                                // Not much we can do about this.  
                            }  
                        }  
                    });  
                }  
            } catch (InterruptedException e) {  
                // We may have been interrupted because it was time to quit.  
                if (mQuit) {  
                    return;  
                }  
                continue;  
            }  
        }  
    }  
}

来看一下NetworkDispatcher中是怎么处理网络请求队列的

public class NetworkDispatcher extends Thread {  
    ……  
    @Override  
    public void run() {  
        Process.setThreadPriority(Process.THREAD_PRIORITY_BACKGROUND);  
        Request<?> request;  
        while (true) {  
            try {  
                // Take a request from the queue.  
                request = mQueue.take();  
            } catch (InterruptedException e) {  
                // We may have been interrupted because it was time to quit.  
                if (mQuit) {  
                    return;  
                }  
                continue;  
            }  
            try {  
                request.addMarker("network-queue-take");  
                // If the request was cancelled already, do not perform the  
                // network request.  
                if (request.isCanceled()) {  
                    request.finish("network-discard-cancelled");  
                    continue;  
                }  
                addTrafficStatsTag(request);  
                //调用Network的performRequest()方法来去发送网络请求 
                NetworkResponse networkResponse = mNetwork.performRequest(request);  
                request.addMarker("network-http-complete");  
                // If the server returned 304 AND we delivered a response already,  
                // we're done -- don't deliver a second identical response.  
                if (networkResponse.notModified && request.hasHadResponseDelivered()) {  
                    request.finish("not-modified");  
                    continue;  
                }  
                // Parse the response here on the worker thread.  
                Response<?> response = request.parseNetworkResponse(networkResponse);  
                request.addMarker("network-parse-complete");  
                // Write to cache if applicable.  
                // TODO: Only update cache metadata instead of entire record for 304s.  
                if (request.shouldCache() && response.cacheEntry != null) {  
                    mCache.put(request.getCacheKey(), response.cacheEntry);  
                    request.addMarker("network-cache-written");  
                }  
                // Post the response back.  
                request.markDelivered();  
                mDelivery.postResponse(request, response);  
            } catch (VolleyError volleyError) {  
                parseAndDeliverNetworkError(request, volleyError);  
            } catch (Exception e) {  
                VolleyLog.e(e, "Unhandled exception %s", e.toString());  
                mDelivery.postError(request, new VolleyError(e));  
            }  
        }  
    }  
} 

调用Network的performRequest()方法来去发送网络请求 ,而Network是一个接口,这里具体的实现是BasicNetwork,我们来看下它的performRequest()方法

public class BasicNetwork implements Network {  
    ……  
    @Override  
    public NetworkResponse performRequest(Request<?> request) throws VolleyError {  
        long requestStart = SystemClock.elapsedRealtime();  
        while (true) {  
            HttpResponse httpResponse = null;  
            byte[] responseContents = null;  
            Map<String, String> responseHeaders = new HashMap<String, String>();  
            try {  
                // Gather headers.  
                Map<String, String> headers = new HashMap<String, String>();  
                addCacheHeaders(headers, request.getCacheEntry()); 
                //调用了HttpStack的performRequest()方法,这里的HttpStack就是在一开始调用newRequestQueue()方法是创建的实例,默认情况下如果系统版本号大于9就创建的HurlStack对象,否则创建HttpClientStack对象 
                httpResponse = mHttpStack.performRequest(request, headers);  
                StatusLine statusLine = httpResponse.getStatusLine();  
                int statusCode = statusLine.getStatusCode();  
                responseHeaders = convertHeaders(httpResponse.getAllHeaders());  
                // Handle cache validation.  
                if (statusCode == HttpStatus.SC_NOT_MODIFIED) {  
                //将服务器返回的数据组装成一个NetworkResponse对象进行返回
                    return new NetworkResponse(HttpStatus.SC_NOT_MODIFIED,  
                            request.getCacheEntry() == null ? null : request.getCacheEntry().data,  
                            responseHeaders, true);  
                }  
                // Some responses such as 204s do not have content.  We must check.  
                if (httpResponse.getEntity() != null) {  
                  responseContents = entityToBytes(httpResponse.getEntity());  
                } else {  
                  // Add 0 byte response as a way of honestly representing a  
                  // no-content request.  
                  responseContents = new byte[0];  
                }  
                // if the request is slow, log it.  
                long requestLifetime = SystemClock.elapsedRealtime() - requestStart;  
                logSlowRequests(requestLifetime, request, responseContents, statusLine);  
                if (statusCode < 200 || statusCode > 299) {  
                    throw new IOException();  
                }  
                return new NetworkResponse(statusCode, responseContents, responseHeaders, false);  
            } catch (Exception e) {  
                ……  
            }  
        }  
    }  
}  

在NetworkDispatcher中收到了NetworkResponse这个返回值后又会调用Request的parseNetworkResponse()方法来解析NetworkResponse中的数据,以及将数据写入到缓存,这个方法的实现是交给Request的子类来完成的,因为不同种类的Request解析的方式也肯定不同。还记得自定义Request的方式吗?其中parseNetworkResponse()这个方法就是必须要重写的。
在解析完了NetworkResponse中的数据之后,又会调用ExecutorDelivery的postResponse()方法来回调解析出的数据

public void postResponse(Request<?> request, Response<?> response, Runnable runnable) {  
    request.markDelivered();  
    request.addMarker("post-response");  
    mResponsePoster.execute(new ResponseDeliveryRunnable(request, response, runnable));  
} 

在mResponsePoster的execute()方法中传入了一个ResponseDeliveryRunnable对象,就可以保证该对象中的run()方法就是在主线程当中运行的了,我们看下run()方法中的代码是什么样的:

private class ResponseDeliveryRunnable implements Runnable {  
    private final Request mRequest;  
    private final Response mResponse;  
    private final Runnable mRunnable;  

    public ResponseDeliveryRunnable(Request request, Response response, Runnable runnable) {  
        mRequest = request;  
        mResponse = response;  
        mRunnable = runnable;  
    }  

    @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")  
    @Override  
    public void run() {  
        // If this request has canceled, finish it and don't deliver.  
        if (mRequest.isCanceled()) {  
            mRequest.finish("canceled-at-delivery");  
            return;  
        }  
        // Deliver a normal response or error, depending.  
        if (mResponse.isSuccess()) {  
            mRequest.deliverResponse(mResponse.result);  
        } else {  
            mRequest.deliverError(mResponse.error);  
        }  
        // If this is an intermediate response, add a marker, otherwise we're done  
        // and the request can be finished.  
        if (mResponse.intermediate) {  
            mRequest.addMarker("intermediate-response");  
        } else {  
            mRequest.finish("done");  
        }  
        // If we have been provided a post-delivery runnable, run it.  
        if (mRunnable != null) {  
            mRunnable.run();  
        }  
   }  
} 

其中在第22行调用了Request的deliverResponse()方法,有没有感觉很熟悉?没错,这个就是我们在自定义Request时需要重写的另外一个方法,每一条网络请求的响应都是回调到这个方法中,最后我们再在这个方法中将响应的数据回调到Response.Listener的onResponse()方法中就可以了。

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